Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO)
CRAB is co-ordinated by Peter Willemsen from TNO. He is a marine
biologist and has been involved in (anti)fouling research since 1990.
He currently is a Senior Project Manager at TNO, responsible for
research on novel antifouling technologies directed towards various
end-user applications, such as shipping, oceanographic instruments and
aquaculture. He previously worked for 6 years in Jotun AS, a major
antifouling coating producer.
Antifouling for shipping is of great economic
importance. The worldwide ban on the use of organotin-based antifouling
agents and increasing pressure on currently used copper based
antifoulings makes research into alternatives necessary and
challenging. Antifouling protection is also important in applications
where normal antifouling coatings are less suitable such as
aquaculture, offshore, oceanographic instrumentation, and heat
exchangers. The Antifouling group has extensive experience in
developing and implementing tailor-made solutions for such
For decades, TNO's Antifouling group has played a prominent role worldwide in the field of antifouling research (en/product/antifouling.html).
Its main antifouling activities in a nutshell:
- Development of alternative antifouling techniques, based on either
chemical strategies, such as natural products, organic biocides and
proteins, or physical strategies, such as fouling-release coatings,
“spiky coatings”, UV protection, water-jetting and electrochemical
- Bioassays with major fouling organisms such as barnacle, algae and bacteria for whole-year testing.
- Efficacy testing through raft exposure.
- Erosion rate assessment and accelerated ageing using rotors.
- Mechanical cleaning of vessels.
- Legislation and environmental aspects of antifouling products.
TNO Science and Industry
PO box 505
1780 AM Den Helder